Abū Rayḥān Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad al-Bīrūnī (Persian: ابوریحان محمد بن احمد بیرونی), often known as Alberuni, Al Beruni or variants, (born 5 September 973 in Kath, Khwarezm (now in Uzbekistan), died 13 December 1048 in Ghazni, today's Afghanistan) was a Persian[1][2][3] polymath[4] scholar of the 11th century.

He was a scientist and physicist, an anthropologist and comparative sociologist, an astronomer and chemist, a critic of alchemy and astrology, an encyclopedist and historian, a geographer and traveler, a geodesist and geologist, a mathematician, a pharmacist and psychologist, an Islamic philosopher and theologian, and a scholar and teacher.

He was the first Muslim scholar to study India and the Brahminical tradition,[5] and has been described as the founder of Indology,[6] the father of geodesy, and "the first anthropologist".[7] He was also one of the earliest leading exponents of the experimental scientific method,[8] and was responsible for introducing the experimental method into mechanics[9] and mineralogy, a pioneer of comparative sociology[10] and experimental psychology,[11] and the first to conduct elaborate experiments related to astronomical phenomena.[12][13]

George Sarton, the father of the history of science, described Biruni as "one of the very greatest scientists of Islam, and, all considered, one of the greatest of all times."[14] A. I. Sabra described Biruni as "one of the great scientific minds in all history."[15]

The crater Al-Biruni on the Moon is named after him. Tashkent Technical University (formerly Tashkent Polytechnic Institute) is also named after Abu Rayhan al